Renewable Power in Germany: Potential and Politics

Joachim Gruber

In the past decade Germany's Renewable Energy Act (EEG) led to rapid exponential, i.e. community organized, growth of photovoltaic and wind turbine installations with doubling times of 1.6 and 6 years, respectively. This met as closely as realistically achievable "the desperate need for a post-fossil economic strategy" and could have been the beginning of a "new social contract for innovation" "to preserve natural life-support systems for present and future generations". "The social contract would combine the 'proactive state' with more participation by civil society in a framework of local and national cooperation", in which "science has an important role to play. ... The transformation to a low-carbon, sustainable society entails a searching and learning process and requires more democracy" (German Advisory Council on Global Change, WBGU, 2012 - cached).

But in 2014 the German federal government, a coalition of Christian and Social Democrats, reigned in the self-organized growth and introduced elements of central control into the EEG. In doing so the government disregarded the explicit advice given by the actors, "introduced a large degree of uncertainty, reduced the citizens' framework for action and introduced disadvantages for decentralized actors" whose pioneering work had brought about the large growth rates (Alliance Citizens' Energy, BBE, 2015 - cached). Electricity production in Germany has developed into a battle ground between the 4 big central power providers and decentralized actors from within the civil society.

Regardless of the thus implemented dirigistic elements, global warming, low costs and the large potential of Renewable Energies in Germany might still be enough motivation for the pioneers of change to continue on their path, transform our society, and thus fully develop renewable energy potentials in this decade as urgently recommended by the WBGU.

This introduction into mostly German literature attempts to cover technical as well as societal issues. Google translate or Babylon translate the links fairly well.


I. Pre 2014 Renewable Energy Act (pre2014 EEG)

I.1. Program

and more (in cache)
by Willem Post, January 16, 2012

Germany's Renewable Energy Act of 2000 guarantees investors above-market fees for renewable energy for 20 years from the time of installation (feed-in tariffs). An EEG surcharge ("apportionment"), equal to the feed-in tariffs paid by utilities for renewable energy minus the revenue from that energy fed into the grid (which depends on the market price), is added (as EEG apportionment/kWh) to the electric bills of almost ALL households and businesses (exemptions).

Table 1. The EEG apportionment charges on household electric bills

Note: External costs (cents/kWh) for environmental and climate damage from
lignite: 12.6 - 14.1, coal: 14.7 - 16.7, nuclear: 18.5 - 50 and up


EEG apportionment


























Of this amount*) ...

  • 2.54 is going to renewables
    • PV: 1.4,
    • biomass: 0.79,
    • on & offshore wind: 0.25 & 0.08,
  • 1.47 due to decrease of kWh market price,
  • 1.26 apportionment due to exemptions,
  • 0.59 backlog of 2013.

*) Source: Hintergrundpapier zur EEG-Umlage 2014, Bundesverband Erneuerbare Energien, Oktober 2013

I.2. Renewable Electricity Production under the pre2014 EEG


"Bügerenergie" = citizens' energy,
"Einzeleigentümer" = individual owners,
"Energieversorger" = power utilities
"Institutionelle und strategische Investoren" = industry, producing and manufacturing sector, banks, insurance and investment companies, project developers etc.
"PSW" = hydropower pump storage

click on figures to enlarge

Source (cached), Leuphana University Lüneburg

"Bürgerenergiegesellschaften" = (citizens') energy cooperatives,
"Bürgerbeteiligungen" = investments fonds with citizens' participation

  • Of the onshore wind and photovoltaic power (73 GW in 2012) in Germany 47 % (= 34 GW) had been installed by citizens and of that 52% (= 18 GW) has been in the hands of single persons. ("Einzeleigentümer").
  • For comparison: Total 2013 installed electrical power: 184 GW (cached).
  • Consequently, approx. 10% (= 18GW/184GW) of installed electric power and 3% (= 0.47 (50.7 + 26.4) 0.52 / 630.1) of gross power in Germany was produced by individual persons.


Development of electricity generation from photovoltaics
Source (in cached) - Mathematica Notebook

Figure 2a: German annual photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation doubled every 1.6 years.

2014 energy production from PV: 35.2 TWh. Its full potential would have been reached in 2015 - 2016 had the growth rate (doubling time = 1.6 years) persisted.

For comparison: German gross power generation was


Electricity from On-Shore Wind

Development of electricity generation from wind
Source (in cached) - Mathematica Notebook

Figure 2b: German annual electricity generated with on-shore wind turbines doubled

  • in the years 1991 - 2004 every 2.3 years,
  • in later years until present every 6 years.

2014 energy production from wind: 51.2 TWh.
For comparison: In 2012 German gross power generation was 630.1 TWh.

  • line UBA is the amount of electricity generated from wind in the UBA study "100 % Renewable Electricity Supply" (Table 2).
  • For comparison: Approximately 13.8 % of the German land area are suited for wind turbine farms which would provide up to 1200 GW installed wind power with 2900 TWh/a electricity production.
  • line 2014 EEG is the "Breathing Lid" (2.4 GW growth per year), imposed by the German federal government in 2014.

II. WBGU: World in Transition - A Social Contract for Sustainability

Flagship Report, Scientific Council on Global Change (WBGU), 2011

The German federal government set up WBGU as an independent, scientific advisory body in 1992 in the run-up to the Rio Earth Summit (the Council's principal tasks).
"In this report the WBGU explains the reasons for the desperate need for a post-fossil economic strategy, yet it also concludes that the transition to sustainability is achievable, and presents ten concrete packages of measures to accelerate the imperative restructuring. If the transformation really is to succeed, we have to enter into a social contract for innovation, in the form of a new kind of discourse between governments and citizens, both within and beyond the boundaries of the nation state."

"The new WBGU-Study "A Social Contract for Sustainability" appears at a time in which people around the world are increasingly committed to creating a future that is both sustainable and climate-safe. The study shows that such a future will only be possible if governments, business and civil society collectively set the right course, making the most of regional, national and global cooperation." (Source)

4-Page Abstracts ("Factsheets") of Selected Issues

III. 2014 EEG: German Government Counteracts WBGU Advice


More on the 2014 EEG:

IV. Shaping the Electricity Market of the Future [in German]

Key issues paper of the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU)

March 12, 2014


The special SRU report "Shaping the electricity market of the future" presents proposals for the transition to a fully renewable power economy by 2050. Continuous growth of renewable energy, efficiency, security of supply and better governance of the energy revolution are important conditions for success.


Nevertheless, the SRU sees cause for criticism. The SRU doubts that a "verguetung" for the most important and cost-effective renewable energy source, onshore wind energy, makes sense, particularly as all other technologies are capped for good reasons. This step cannot be justified on the basis of keeping costs low. Network congestion cannot credibly be cited for this either.

Moreover, the introduction of auctioning should not be rushed. In the embodiment of auctions one should first learn from the experiences and mistakes of other countries, which led in part to higher tariffs or mismanagement. First, therefore, pilot projects should be evaluated for an efficient design of the process. This should also be the European Commission to communicate.

The energy revolution will not succeed unless a concept for greater flexibility and significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions from fossil power plants in the transition period will be followed. The rebound in CO2 emissions in Germany damages the international reputation of the energy revolution. Particular cause for concern is the excessive base of lignite. Ultimately, the phasing out of coal must be tackled.

The SRU assumes that wind power and photovoltaics will be the key technologies of a future energy system in a few decades. Their output can very quickly fluctuate, have a considerable fluctuation frequency range and is predictable only to a limited degree. The entire energy system must adapt to these new quality requirements by being flexible. For this, the regime must send the right signals.

In the long term, these are possibilities of adapting to these challenges:

  1. The demand for electricity should react more flexible - especially in industry and commerce- thus contributing to load balancing.
  2. In addition, the continued expansion of the long-range grid should allow a large-scale balance of supply and demand. Of particular relevance is adding cross-border network expansion to the national network optimization. A stronger EU-wide integration of electricity grids can ensure that different national supply and demand profiles increasingly cancel each other out.
  3. The energy demand in all application areas (heat, transport and industrial processes) should increasingly be converted to electricity as the main form of energy to meet climate targets. The result would be an increasingly integrated system with many new flexibility options. So you can move temporary surplus production of electricity into other areas of use (eg. as heat or electric mobility). This also allows a temporarily high production quantity being emulated by the market.
  4. Finally, further long-term flexibility options should include the mutual convertibility of various forms of energy (eg. power to gas, eg. hydrogen or methane) and a variety of domestic and foreign storage options.

stromgestehungskosten nach ISE, 2013

Figure 3: Prime electricity costs for renewables and fossile energies in Germany 2013.

Source: C. Kost et al., "Stromgestehungskosten Erneuerbare Energien", Fraunhoferinstitut für Solare Energiesysteme, November 2013 (im Cache)


V. Energy Target 2050: 100% Renewable Electricity Supply (english short version)

Thomas Klaus, Carla Vollmer, Kathrin Werner, Harry Lehmann, Klaus Müschen

Federal Environmental Agency, 2010

Energieziel 2050 - 100 Prozent Strom aus Erneuerbaren Quellen (full version, in German)

V. 1. Overview

  1. In order to achieve an 80 - 90% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 we will first have to transform our electricity supply system. The energy sector, currently causing more than 80% of total emissions in Germany, has a key role to play for reducing GHG emissions. Electricity supply is responsible for about 40% of the energy sector's CO2 emissions.
  2. For Germany an electricity supply system based completely on renewable energies by 2050 is technically as well as ecologically feasible. In our simulation we deploy the best technology available on the market today, meaning that our system can be implemented
  3. We have conceptualised 3 scenarios representing extreme cases of renewable energy supply, with the electricity supply being predominantly based on wind turbines and photovoltaic cells. Only the Regions Network scenario is dealt with in this study.
  4. An electricity supply system based completely on renewable energies can - at any hour of the year - provide a security of supply on par with today's high standard. The results of our simulations show that renewable energies - through the interplay of production, load management and electricity storage - can meet the demand for electricity and provide the necessary control reserve at any time. This is possible even during extreme weather events as occurred in the four-year period considered.
  5. The expansion of reserve power capacity, application of load management and the development of infrastructure for the transport and long-term storage of electricity are necessary prerequisites for a power system based solely on renewable energies in the year 2050.
  6. To this effect, a grid expansion on a European level offers great potentials to increase efficiency: a well developed electricity grid seems an essential component for achieving the goal of a completely renewables based electricity system in Germany.
  7. As an important requirement for achieving a 100% renewable electricity supply, we have to tap the existing energy saving potential.
  8. A switch to an electricity supply system based on renewable energies will also be economically beneficial.
  9. A switch to a 100% renewable energy system by 2050 requires decisive political support.
  10. It is important to define intermediate goals, particularly for the period after 2020. The earlier we start decisive actions, the more time we will have to tackle the upcoming challenges technological and societal adaptation!
  11. It must be clear that a complete transition of the electricity sector presents a great challenge but needs to start today to avoid the most severe impacts of climate change.

V. 2. Details of the Regions Network Scenario

Rate of utilization of available renewable energy potential in Germany

Table 2: Assumed Available Renewable Energy Potential and its Use: Model Data.

It is assumed that only 43 % of the 2050 existing potentials are exploited because the remaining areas are, inter alia, needed for solar thermal systems. Thus, the installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) systems is 120 GW. Of this amount, about 20% on suitable facades and other vertical surfaces and around 80% on suitable roof surfaces.


V. 3. Model


RES = Renewable Energy Sources

Figure 4: SimEE - Model (in cached): The simulation of the Regions Network scenario was conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology (IWES).

The model simulates electricity production from

  • installed renewable energy capacities and
  • storage facilities,
  • the load curve and
  • selected load management options over several years.

The simulation is carried out in hourly resolution and chronological order.

Wind and photovoltaic energy production and the use of electric heat pumps can be simulated in a spatial resolution of 14x14 km2.

The dynamic simulation of renewable feed-in and load in 2050 is based on meteorological data and load characteristics from four example years, 2006-2009.

  1. In a first step the load is covered as far as possible by feed-in from wind, photovoltaic, hydropower and geothermal energy.

    Electricity production from these sources is determined on the basis of weather data, considering availability of production capacities, their spatial distribution and assuming the use today's best available technology.

    So called "new" electricity uses comprise the large increase in e-mobility and in the use of heat pumps, and additional air-conditioning. They were simulated in conjunction with load management.

  2. In a second step of the simulation, load management was applied to reduce the residual load, which is the difference between load and feed-in from all renewables - except for biomass.

  3. Where feed-in proves to be insufficient to cover the load, in a last step

    • stored energy (pump storage and chemical storage systems),
    • biomass-fired reserve power plants and
    • imports

    are utilised.

    99% of the surplus power is stored

    • in short-term storage facilities (pump storage, 8.6 GW installed nominal power), and
    • in long-term chemical storage systems (hydrogen or methane, 44 GW)

    to be reconverted at a later point. 1 % of the renewable energy generated is discarded ("surpluses, curtailed", Fig. 8)

Notation: RES = Renewable Energy Sources


V. 4. Results

Figure 8: Use of electrolysis, hydrogen conversion, biomethane and imports for the simulation period 2006 - 2009

Figure 8: Residual load for prospected electricity consumption assuming the weather we had 2006 - 2009 in Germany.

The residual load is defined as the difference between actual load on the one hand and energy production from renewables, load management, pump storage and chemical storage facilities on the other hand.


In these scenarios, imports are only used to even out the four-year energy balance. They are not necessary to ensure security of supply. Without these imports, renewable energy potentials would need to be exploited to a somewhat larger extent.

V. 5. Storage of Energy

V.5.1. Pump Storage Hydropower

Electricity generation portfolios of the Nordic countries in 2012

click on figure to enlarge

Electricity generation portfolios of the Nordic countries in 2012 (Source, cached). Arrows show transmission lines and their power (MW).

Not included in figure: Potential new cables

  • NordLink DE-NO (1400 MW, investment decision in 2014, potential operation in 2018),
  • cable DW-SE (feasability study, potential operation in 2020).

Power Lines Germany - Denmark - Norway

click on figure to enlarge

Power lines needed linking Germany with Denmark (42 GW) and Norway with Denmark (46 GW)


  • Paths to 100% renewable electricity, Special Report, German Advisory Council on the Environment, January 2011 [in German] (cached).
  • DLR (2010b): Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Integration verschiedener regenerativer Energiequellen zu einer 100% regenerativen Stromversorgung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland bis zum Jahr 2050. Endbericht. Unveröffentlichte Rechenergebnisse. Stuttgart: DLR
  • .

A storage concept (cached, short version for decision makers) not considered in this UBA-study is hydropower. A reservoir capacity of 84 TWh (cached) pump storage is available in Norway (84 TWh = 13 % of the total German electricity consumption in 2013), which

  • amounts to approx. half the annual electrical energy produced by PV and onshore wind in the Regional Network Scenario.
  • could accommodate the multi-year energy fluctuations in the methane storage system (actually, hydropower would not be used to store energy for such a long period of time).

46 GW power line connecting Norway and Denmark and a 42 GW power line connecting Denmark and Germany would transport 76 TWh/a electrical energy for smoothing out renewables' fluctuations.

See also: Stromspeicher in der Energiewende: Untersuchung zum Bedarf an neuen Stromspeichern in Deutschand für den Erzeugungsausgleich, Systemdienstleistungen und im Verteilnetz (in cache) [Electricity Storage in the Energy System Transformation] [participating institutions: FENES, IAEW, ISEA, September 2014]

Hans-Martin Henning, Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (ISE) in Freiburg/Breisgau - Scenario: Germany will operate (Source: Forscher bauen aus, photovoltaik 09/2015, pp. 68 - 70)

  • stationary battery storage 10 GWh capacity in 2025,
  • stationary battery storage 25 GWh capacity in 2040,
  • electrolysis capacity 30 - 45 GW in 2040,
  • stationary battery storage 40 GWh capacity when in 2040 no more fossil fuel plants.

V.5.2. Chemical Storage Systems

Level of the methane storage during the period 2006 - 2009

click on figure to enlarge

Methane storage fluctuations over the period 2006 - 2009

Electricity can be converted into chemical energy and stored in this form for long periods and transported.

  1. This is achieved in a first step by converting electricity into hydrogen (renewable power hydrogen, rp-H2) via electrolysis. Ideally, the chemical reaction takes place close to the location of electricity production to reduce electricity transmission infra-structure requirements.
  2. In a second step it is possible to convert hydrogen into methane (rp-CH4) by means of the Sabatier process.

The infrastructure already in place for natural gas allows for an efficient distribution and storage of rp-methane. In contrast, rp-hydrogen would require an additional transport grid but offers higher power-to-power storage efficiencies (42 % for rp-H2 vs. 35 % for rp-CH4).

V.5.2.1. Hydrogen Storage System

To fully cover the load at any hour throughout the simulation period, the following generation capacities were applied successively as needed:

  1. up to 2.5 GW Combined Heat and Power (CHP) biomethane-gas turbines,
  2. 6.9 GW imports of electricity from renewable sources,
  3. 30.4 GW Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants for the reconversion of renewable power (rp)-hydrogen and
  4. 17.5 GW biomethane gas turbines without Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as reserve capacity.

The effect of electrolysers, hydrogen reconversion, biomethane conversion and imports for the entire simulation period are shown in Figure 8. The rp-hydrogen

storage system has an efficiency of 42%

The hydrogen storage system requires cavern storage space volume of around 28 109 m3. The constrained potential for storage in caverns in Germany is around 37 109 m3, sufficient for 110 TWhth hydrogen; consequently simultaneous natural gas and hydrogen storage is possible with existing storage capacity.

V.5.2.2. Methane Storage System

If the long-term storage system is run on rp-methane instead of rp-hydrogen, the total system efficiency decreases to 35% due to additional conversion losses.

Imports therefore slightly increase, on average to 30 TWh or around 6% of electricity consumption per annum.

The required storage volume of around 7.5 109 m3 is therefore significantly lower than the constrained potential available in 2050.

V. Potential Leakage of Greenhouse Gas Methane

Required methane storage volume Vn = 7.5 109 m3 (1 bar and 273 K) = 5.4 109 kg. If leakage of the necessary methane handling system (including storage) is 1 %/a (more realistic values would be 5.3 %/a - 10.8 %/a %, in cache), this amounts to 5.4 107 kg/a. For comparison:

For methane leaks see also:

VI. 200 GW PV for Germany - 200 GW are simply logical [both in German]

Source:photovoltaik, 9/2012

Christian Breyer and coworkers studied a scenario for a power supply from 100 % renewable energies being as decentralized as possible. For his calculations he divided Germany into area elements 100 kilometer wide.

"Such elements have a tendency towards autarchy", he justifies the assumption. Within each area element enough power needs to be available at all 8760 hours of the year. He starts from known data on

He makes assumptions on the use and cost of batteries and other storage systems such as power-to-gas (in which green electricity is used to generate gas which is then fed into the gas grid).

His result:

The annual electricity generation is around 850 TWh, which is more than the commonly assumed consumption. This is necessary because 10% of the energy is not used because they occur at the wrong time and the storage units are full.

As for the efficiencies:

Needed is a Germany wide installed capacity of about 200 GW of solar power plants and more than 300 GW of wind turbines.

VI.1. Cost of a Household-Size Island PV-System

(J. Gruber)

"How would you keep consumers from generating their own electricity, when they can do this for less than 1/3 of the prize they'd pay to the power companies?
You would have to put a penalty tax on photovoltaics in order to prevent them installing 150 GW. The roof area for that is there." (Volker Quaschning, Professor, Regenerative Energy Systems, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW) Berlin)

Costs for PV-power on an island not connected to the electricity grid, generated on a rooftop facing south (east or west) tilted 40 degrees (line "PV-Insel" in Figure 3).

  • PV electricity price: 0.084 (0.10) Euro/kWh.
    • Costs of a turnkey PV installation (2015) 1335 Euro/kWp.
    • service life of the installation: 20 years,
    • generated energy per year: 806 kWh/kWp (690 kWh/kWp),
    • electricity consumption per year: 0.3 kW 8760 h = 2630 kWh.
      From that follows:
      • size of installation: 3.3 (3.8) kWp,
      • price of installation: 4400 (5040) Euro.
  • Storage
    • Li-Ion-battery: 500 Euro/kWh, service life: 20 years,
    • necessary energy stored: 12 h 0.3 kW = 3.6 kWh, nominal energy installed: 4.8 kWh (source: Effizienzhaus Plus, Berlin).
    • It follows: costs of battery = 2400 Euro.

  • Total purchase price (PV + storage)
    • PV facing south:
      4400 Euro + 2400 Euro = 6800 Euro
    • PV facing east or west:
      5040 Euro + 2400 Euro = 7440 Euro

  • Electricity costs (PV + storage)
    • PV facing south:
      6800 Euro for 2630 kWh/a 20 a = 0.13 Euro/kWh
    • PV facing east or west:
      7440 Euro for 2630 kWh/a 20 a = 0.15 Euro/KWh

VII. Examples

VII. 1. Electricity and Heat Generation in Numbers, Umweltbundesamt, 2014 [in German]

Map of Power Plants
Energy Mix

Source: Wind Energy Power Plants

Source: Photovoltaic Power Plants

VII. 2. Map of Energy Regions in Germany [in German]

VII. 3. Climate Protection Programs and Projects - Innovative Stand-Alone Projects [in German]

VII. 4. Energy Counties - Climate Protection: Concepts for Counties and Municipalities [in German]

VII. 5. Climate County Saerbeck [in German]

VII. 6. Rolf Disch Solar Architecture

Sonnenschiff, Freiburg Seniorenwohnstaette


VII. 7. Dr. Werner Sobek

VII. 8. Germany Hits 59 % Renewable Peak, Grid Does Not Explode

VII. 9. Alliance for Citizens' Energy (BBEn) [in German]

BBEn defines itself as a competence center that bundles and focusses the common interests of citizens' energy by

VII. 10. Citizens' Energy eG [in German] offers citizens the opportunity to actively contribute

VII. 11. Agora-Energiewende, project duration: 2012 - 2017, budget: 14 106 Euros, Council Members

"Along with other actors from politics, civil society, the business world, and science, we aim to develop a common understanding of the problems, clarify the options, and discuss feasible policy measures." (Source)

VII. 12. Lots of details can be found in my compilation "Daten und Zahlen".

VII. 13. Jochen Gruber, Windparks - Pro und Contra: Ein Blog

VII. 14. Joachim Gruber, Estimate of the municipal income from trade tax paid by the operator of the planned Windfarm Ankershagen [in German], 22 March 2013.

VIII. Appendix

VIII.1. Potential of on-shore wind energy
A study of the Germany wide land area potential and corresponding energy production [in German]

Insa Lütkehus, Hanno Salecker, Kirsten Adlunger, Thomas Klaus, Carla Vollmer, Carsten Alsleben, Raphael Spiekermann, Andrea Bauerdorff, Jens Günther, Gudrun Schütze, Stefan Bofinger, Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), 2013


Potential of on-shore wind energy

Approximately 13.8 % of the German land area are suited for wind turbine farms. Sensitive nature areas are not part of this area. The wind turbines are located far enough from inhabited areas to meet the required noise protection laws. These 13.8 % can provide up to 1200 GW installed wind power with 2900 TWh/a annual electricity production.

For comparison: Germany's 2012 installed wind power on land is about 34 GW delivering 50.7 TWh/a. In 2012 German gross power generation was 630.1 TWh.

The estimate of the area (13.8 %) did not take into account economical aspects.

The two reference wind turbines used in this study are assumed to deliver Germany wide on the average 2440 full load hours per year. The number of full load hours per year, averaged over Germany is

The true technical-ecological potential will therefore be significantly smaller. For example

  1. disregarding locations in which the weak reference wind turbine will deliver less than 2200 full load hours per year will reduce the potential to 930 GW installed wind power with 2400 TWh/a annual electricity production.
  2. doubling the required least distance of wind turbines from residential areas will reduce the 13.8 % to 3.4 %.

VIII.2. Certifications for Green Energy

(overview in German)

Gruener Strom Label Gruenes Gas Label

Regenerative or cogenerative electricity is certified with this label if its provider charges a fixed amount ("funding") per kWh for

in accordance with the principles described in para. 3.1. through 3.2.2.

This funding amount must be at least

para. 3.1. through 3.2.2 specify:

VIII.3. Providers of Renewable Electricity

Whom to choose among more than 1000 providers?

VIII.4. K. Rohrig, "German Government's Scenario to Supply 80% of Power Consumption by Renewable Energy in 2050

5th International Conference on Integration of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources (IRED), Berlin, 04.-06.12.2012 (cached)

Electricity Grids of the Future

click on figure to enlarge
Source: Rohrig, 2012

Electricity grid development in Germany: scenarios 2030 and 2050

Version: 13 November 2016
Address of this page
Joachim Gruber