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The total tritium inventory in a fusion reactor would be about 1 kg whilst the amount discharged into the environment during normal operation should be less than 2 g per year, so that the dose received by the general public would still be less than 1% of the dose due to natural radioactivity.
Taken form the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) report 30, the Annual Limit for Intake (ALI) is 80 mCi and the Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE) in soft tissue is 64 mrem per millicurie (mCi) ingested.
(The ALI is the amount of activity required to receive a dose of 5 rem of equivalent whole body dose for the year. To use the given CEDE dose factor to calculate the dose, estimate the amount of tritium initially deposited in the body, and divide by 1 mCi/64 mrem. The ALI and the CEDE factor are based on the biological half life of 10 days.)
An example of using the CEDE factor:
If a worker ingested 4 mCi of tritium, the worker would receive a dose of 256 mrem.
GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media. GEOTRAP is devoted to the exchange of information and in-depth discussions on present approaches to acquiring field data and testing and modelling flow and transport of radionuclides in geologic formations for the purpose of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems. This information is important for both national waste management programmes and the wider scientific community.
The scope of this annex includes reviews of:
- Radiation-induced alterations of the immune response, including immunosuppression (depression) or immunostimulation (activation);
- Possible mechanisms by which the immune system is altered following exposure to ionizing radiation;
- Epidemiological assessments of immune system alterations in various diseases, with emphasis on the effects of ionizing radiation.