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Iraqi Missile Abstracts: 1994
These abstracts are excerpted from the CNS Monitoring Proliferation Threats Missile Abstracts Database.  The material presented here is a representative sample of the material contained in the full database.  Abstracts do not include the full text of the original source, but do include all proliferation-relevant information.  CNS has made no attempt to evaluate the veracity or accuracy of the information provided by the original sources.  Access to the CNS Databases is provided on a subscription basis. For information on how to subscribe, please contact Chris Fitz at

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Iraq Makes Amazing Military Comeback

Washington Times, 1/19/94, P. A19 by Jim Anderson  

Deutsche Presse Agentur 

According to US officials, Iraq still has up to 20 upgraded Scud missiles known as "al-Husayns" hidden in bunkers. Iraqi officials claim that all remaining missiles have been destroyed or were turned over to UN officials to be destroyed. UN weapons inspectors stated that they were unable to substantiate the Iraqi claim. According to allied intelligence and Iraqi officials, Iraq now has the world's fourth largest army. 

German Ship Caught With Rocket Fuel Ingredient For Iraq

Executive News Service, 1/24/94  

Reuter, 1/24/94 

On 1/24/94, German government spokesman Dieter Vogel announced that on 12/28/93, German and Saudi inspectors confiscated over 100 barrels of ammonium perchlorate from a German-registered ship docked in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that was bound for Beirut, Lebanon from Hung Fu, China, although the chemicals were to go on to Iraq despite UN sanctions. Ammonium perchlorate is used for missile fuel. The German ship is called the "Asian Senator." 

Spy Data, Diplomacy Net Arms Intercepts

Defense News, 1/24/94, pp. 6, 37, by Neil Munro and Barbara Opall 
According to Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Nonproliferation Robert Einhorn, the US has not used coercive military action in the interdiction of weapons supplies, but other US officials said they would not rule out this option in the future against shipments deemed harmful to US national security. Einhorn, citing the 8/93 interception of the Chinese ship Yin He, which was suspected of transporting chemicals to Iran, stated that "that action was conducted with the consent and cooperation of the Chinese government." According to the Pentagon, a number of successful interdictions were conducted in 1993, including a 6/93 shipment of chemicals from India to Iraq, and a 12/93 shipment of chemicals from China to Iraq. 

On 1/19/93, former congressional staffer and international security consultant Ken Timmerman cited a number of US intelligence failures in arms shipment interdiction, including the sale of computerized machine tools from Germany to Iran, and the 1992 North Korean shipment of ballistic missiles to Iran. 

Scud Hunting May Drop Under 10-Minute Mark

Aviation Week & Space Technology, 2/21/94, p. 90, by David A. Fulghum 
On 3/18/94, at Nellis AFB in Nevada, the US will conduct the second half of "Operation Crossbolt 2," which is designed to demonstrate the US's ability to successfully hunt mobile ballistic missile launchers. The program is an attempt to reduce aircraft strike time against mobile launchers to less than ten minutes after missile launch, but the Air Combat Command (ACC) did not specify what its ultimate goal was. During the Gulf War, it took about six minutes for Iraqi mobile launcher crews to relocate after firing a missile. 

The goal of the demonstration is to detect missiles after launch, locate and correctly identify the launchers, and assign an appropriate weapon to destroy the launchers; all activity is to be accomplished in the first pass of the fighter aircraft assigned to attack the launchers. The test will involve F- 15E and F-16C ground attack aircraft, an E-3 AWACS, an E-8 JSTARS for moving target information, a U-2R with advanced synthetic aperture radar, a JTIDS [Joint Tactical Information Distribution System] equipped RC-135S Cobra Ball with long-range infrared sensors, a modular control and reporting center (CRC), and ground-based TPS-75 and TPS-59 radars. Two day-missions and one night-mission will be flown; each test will be against two TELs. 

ACC officials would not speculate on how effective the system would be against mobile launchers, but they did indicate that it might not be necessary to achieve 80 or 90 percent kill capabilities. The chief of ACC's theater air defense division, Col. Patrick Garvey, said, "The idea is to make life miserable for Scud crews." Mobile missile crews would fire fewer and fewer missiles as losses mounted. Garvey stated that mobile missile hunting was part of the "offensive counter-air mission to take the battle to the enemy, versus terminal systems that . . . fight the battle over enemy territory." 

The first half of Operation Crossbolt 2 was completed at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, from 12/13/93 to 12/15/93. The test used a "surrogate DSP," a Cobra Ball aircraft 80 miles from the target, and ground-based radars located about 250 miles from the target. 

In 1/93, at White Sands, the ACC and Air Warfare Center conducted a Crossbolt 1 test that detected a Lance missile firing, and, using voice communication only, guided an F-15E to the launcher in 32 minutes. The F-15E's target was an SS-21 surrogate vehicle, and the aircraft had to distinguish the target from a decoy. The test involved an F-15E, a U-2R with ASAR, a Cobra Ball aircraft, a E-8 JSTARS, a TPS-75 radar and a CRC at Roswell, New Mexico. Commenting on the test, Garvey stated, "That's much too long to prosecute that target set." 

'Most Complex' Weapons Inspection Uncovers No Violations

UN Chronicle, 3/94, p. 70 
From 9/30/93 to 10/30/93, 85 UNSCOM inspectors conducted the nineteenth ballistic missile inspection in Iraq. Using advanced technology, such as helicopters equipped with ground-penetrating radar, the team inspected thirty sites in central, northern, and western Iraq for signs of any prohibited weapons systems. The team also verified Iraqi declarations concerning its previous weapons programs. On 11/8/93, UNSCOM reported that no weapons banned under UN Security Council resolution 687 were found. 

Ballistic Missile Team Assesses 14 Iraqi Sites For Future Monitoring

United Nations Press Release (IK/166, SC/5802), 3/8/94 
On 2/25/94, the twenty-first ballistic missile inspection team concluded its assessment of the missile production capabilities of 14 sites in the vicinity of Baghdad. The inspection, which began on 2/17/94, sought to establish effective monitoring practices at sites identified by UNSCOM as likely support facilities for Iraq's current missile production program. Ballistic missiles with a range of more than 150 km (90 miles) have been banned in Iraq by the UN Security Council [1]. The acquired data from the inspection will also aid in UNSCOM's operational planning for current monitoring and verification activities in Iraq. The team, led by Patrice Palanque of France, was composed of 14 experts from the UK, Russia, Ukraine, France, and the US. Following high-level talks in Baghdad, it was announced that similar missions will be conducted in the future. 

Supporting Sources: 

[1] Reuter, 2/16/94, "Missile Team Readies For Long-Term Iraq Monitoring." 

No Longer Fenced In

Time, 5/23/94, pp. 36-38, by Thomas Sancton 
UNSCOM chairman Rolf Ekeus is confident that UN inspectors have found the 890 Iraqi Scud-B missiles purchased from the Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s. However, Iraqi scientists continue to conduct ballistic missile research at sites such as the Saad 16 research and development center, which was destroyed during the war and rebuilt, and the newly built Ibn al-Haytham lab facility near Baghdad. Despite a UN resolution which prohibits Iraq from possessing missiles with a range greater than 93 miles, a UN expert stated that "the same technology used to make a missile that flies 93 miles can be used on one that flies 400 or 1,200 miles."

On 12/93, Saudi and German officials confiscated two containers of Chinese-made ammonium perchlorate, a fundamental component in building solid-fuel rockets, aboard the German registered ship, the Asian Senator. The Chinese ammonium perchlorate was en route to Beirut, however, US and UN officials confirmed that the ultimate destination was the Iraqi long-range ballistic missile program. On 4/94, US authorities arrested two Jordanian nationals, Al. M. Harb and his wife Rula Saba Harb, on charges of violating the Iraqi embargo. In the course of three years, the Harbs made over 100 shipments to Iraq, which included equipment with possible ballistic missile applications

UN Tallies Iraqi Missiles

Executive News Service, 6/24/94  

Reuter, 6/24/94, by Leon Barkho 

On 6/24/94, UN arms experts successfully completed a 15-day mission during which they inspected missile production sites and tagged missiles. The tenth UN ballistic missile mission leader, Mark Silver, did not say how many missiles had been tagged, but did say that all of the missiles tagged had been declared by Iraq and that it had taken a "while to accomplish that task." The tagged missiles had ranges of 50-149 km and were tagged to ensure that they were not modified to a range greater than the maximum 150 km allowable under the terms of the Gulf War ceasefire. The most dangerous and difficult task was tagging the operational missiles, which were ready to launch while the UN experts were touching and cleaning them, applying the tags, and working around them. All known Iraqi rockets with ranges greater than 150 km have already been scrapped, according to the UN. Silver also made four scheduled and three surprise inspections of Iraqi missile production sites near Baghdad. 

The coordinating body for Iraqi inspections, the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM), is currently preparing a strict arms monitoring mechanism to verify that Iraq does not revive any of its dismantled weapons programs. It is not known at this time when the mechanism will be in place and functioning. 

Missile Parts Sale To Baghdad Lands A German In Jail

International Herald Tribune, 7/20/94 
On 7/19/94, German businessman Anton Eyerle, owner of Rhein-Bayern Fahrzeugbau, was sentenced to 5 1/2 years imprisonment because his firm continued to deliver missile components to Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait in 8/90; the firm's shipments violated a UN embargo and German export laws. The firm supplied more than 1,000 ignition systems from Iraqi Styx and Scud missiles. Judge Hartmut Klotz, in charge of sentencing in the German city of Augsburg, where the sentencing took place, said that the ignition systems could have been used to activate enough Styx and Scud missiles "to wipe out the entire Middle East." Two managing directors of the company had already been found guilty, but Eyerle asserts that he had no knowledge of these illegal activities. 

Iraq fired Scud missiles during the Gulf War in 1990-1991, and threatened to equip the missiles with chemical warheads and use them against Israel and the other Arab Gulf countries during that conflict. 

New York Trader Nabbed For Iraq Shipment

Export Control News, 12/30/94, p. 14 
On 12/14/94, the US-based import-export agent Storm Kheem was arrested for organizing in 1993 an illicit shipment of ammonium perchlorate, a missile fuel component, from the Chinese Chemical Import-Export Corporation of Guangdong to Zeid Khorma, an Iraqi government purchasing agent in Jordan. Kheem works for the New York firm Bkesco, and is also known by the alias Kim Kyung-il. Two containers of the chemical, falsely labeled ammonium sulphate, were seized in 12/93 during a search of the German freighter Asian Senator, and were eventually linked to Kheem by German, Saudi Arabian, and US Customs agents. Initial speculation had linked the shipment to origins in Germany or South Korea. US government officials have noted that the Chinese government willingly participated in the search of the Asian Senator. 


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