of American Scientists
Iraq Special Weapons: Nuclear,
Biological Chemical and Missile Proliferation News - 1991
White House report on the international
export to Iraq of nuclear, biological and chemical and ballistic
missile technology and report
on sanctions taken by other countries against Iraq. (910917)
INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES' ACTIONS
GERMANY now has an extensive network
of laws and regulations intended to control the export of
German cooperation with the United States
in preventing export of goods and technology related to proliferation has
become closer and more effective in recent years.
chemical weapons precursors,
dual-use CBW related equipment, and
other forms of assistance to foreign
CBW or missile projects.
German government policy has prohibited
the export of war weapons to Iraq since 1961.
German proliferation export control
efforts date to at least 1984, when the Federal Republic
of Germany applied controls on four chemical weapons precursors. In August
1984, Germany also imposed a new regulation requiring the licensing of
chemical plants and certain chemical equipment suitable for the
production of chemical weapons agents and precursors.
This was especially aimed at the
exports by Karl Kolb to Iraqi chemical weapons facilities in Samarra. Karl
Kolb, however, won a court case in which it contested blocking of its shipments.
On February 15, 1989,
the German Cabinet introduced a requirement for an export license for plants
suitable for the production of biological agents and tightened the
definition for the requirement for an export license for chemical plants.
As of February 20, 1990,
Germany made all 50 Australia Group chemical weapons precursors
subject to licensing worldwide.
The German government subsequently introduced
legislation to strengthen further its export controls, which as of this
writing (Sept. 17, 1991) has failed to pass the German parliament.
On July 20, 1990,
the penalty for violations of
the Foreign Trade and Payments Act was increased from three to 10
A general license requirement for
activities of German nationals in connection with the development and
Fines under the Foreign Trade
and Payments Act were increased from 500,000 Deutschmarks to one million
On August 11, 1990, Germany
imposed an export license requirement for participation of German citizens
in foreign missile projects.
Unauthorized services carry a fine or
a term of imprisonment of 5 years and in very serious cases up to 10 years.
Authorizations will normally be denied,
and the German government has advised German nationals to terminate such
In October 1990, a new law was
passed providing up to 15 years imprisonment for the particularly sensitive
area of participation in the production of nuclear, biological and chemical
weapons. Acts performed by German citizens in foreign countries are
covered. The minimum sentence for intentional offenses was fixed at two
The German government has initiated
a large number of investigations concerning possible proliferation-related
On March 12, 1991, the Federal Prosecutor
in Darmstadt issued indictments against twelve individuals and one corporation
(Preussag) in connection with the export of chemical weapons technology
to Iraq. The indictments are the culmination of a three-year investigation
in connection with the construction of the Samarra chemical weapons complex.
version: March 11, 2003
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